Fr. F. J. Remler, CM - PB 180 pages - 5" x 7"
Learn how to resist temptation now — before it’s too late!
You’ve no doubt taken steps to ensure your safety — and your family’s — from various kinds of worldly calamities. But if you haven’t made sure you’re properly on guard against temptations, you’re setting yourself up for a spiritual disaster of immense proportions. No matter how devoted to Christ you are, temptations are going to come to you. That’s why How to Resist Temptation is essential reading for every serious Catholic.
The author, Fr. Francis J. Remler, C.M., helps you prepare yourself so that, when temptations begin to assail your soul, you’ll be ready. Learn from Father’s experience Fr. Remler gives you the benefit of his expertise as a confessor and shepherd of souls, as he shows you how to identify and guard against common misunderstandings of what temptation really is and what it is not — misunderstandings that can paralyze your spiritual growth. He details ways you can recognize the elements of temptation — and be on guard against often-unrecognized causes of individual temptations. He reveals how you can keep the memories of your past sins from troubling and tempting you now, and clarifies why God allows temptation to exist in the first place. He even explores the role of the demonic in day-to-day temptations — with firm faith in God’s power.
A marvelously encouraging and optimistic book, How to Resist Temptation even contains useful directions on how you can — believe it or not — actually benefit from temptation, and how you can learn from others’ examples as you fight against temptation. So the next time the siren song of temptation starts to sound in your ears, don’t try to tough out the struggle alone — call on God’s ever-plentiful grace, and go to battle against sin armed with the wisdom of How to Resist Temptation!
By Brother Robert Mary M.I.C.M. (tert.) A thorough and timely defense of the Church's infallibly defined dogma, "No Salvation Outside the Church." This book refutes many of the old and new objections. Copious references from the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, learned and holy theologians and Magisterial pronouncements make this a logical and authoritative study. Very necessary for anyone interested in learning more about this controversial subject. Softcover, 235 pages, illustrated.
By Frère Michel de la Sainte Trinité Vol. II - Limited Quantities. PB 848 pages
These books were printed the 1980s and they will not be reprinted. There are few left. Volume One is already no longer available. All Volume Two copies are slightly damaged in some fashion, (dented covers, yellowed edges, bent corners, or slight water stains) and will only be sold here until the stock is exhausted. All sales of Volume Two are sold as is and all sales are final. All books are readable but damaged.
The Secret and the Church A moving commentary on the First Secret: the heroic and touching lives of the little seers. Explains the earth-shaking fulfillment of the prophecies of the Second Secret: the deliverance of Portugal, Stalin’s gulag, and the terrible chastisement of World War II. More photos, including “50th anniversary” photo of Sister Lucy.
The entire extraordinary mystery of Fatima, studied step by step from the beginning; for our conversion and our salutary consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary; so as to arrive at the discovery of the Secret of secrets, the third part of the secret given by the Blessed Virgin Mary on July 13, 1917, which is still hidden at Rome; and to put an end to our fears, for there is a victorious, glorious conclusion to this era of errors, carnage and persecutions spread all over the world by Russia as Mary, and She alone, had announced in 1917. Let us go forward, then, for we shall see the salvation which only the Immaculate Heart of Mary could promise and will obtain from Jesus for us!
Volume III is also still available: Vol. Ill - The Third Secret (1942-1960)
This three volume masterpiece was written by Frère Michel de la Sainte Trinité of the Little Brothers of the Sacred Heart under the direction of the late Abbé Georges deNantes. Frère Michel, after writing this masterpiece retired to the secluded life of the Cisterians, of which order he is now the Superior.
This work is of great historical significance since it it the history of the dark ages of the 20th century, the most backward, cruel, and barbaric of all centuries in the Chirstian era. It is a story however, full of hope and great beauty because it is the story of our age as God sees it. No Catholic or historian can afford to pass up the chance to read this entire work if he would understand the passion of our age and the years to follow.
Also Available as Ebook
Fr. Robert Lange - 168 Pages - PB
“He is a priest forever! Father Lange’s fascinating account of his lifelong path to the priesthood and his experience of grace is intensely personal, and yet he accomplishes his purpose of reminding us about universal truths and the possibility of a permanent, loving relationship with God. This inspiring book is equally suited for Sunday afternoon reading and as a required text for students and seminarians.”Patrick J. Reilly President, The Cardinal Newman Society
Father Robert A. Lange’s engaging memoir, Windows into the Life of a Priest, supplies exactly what the book’s title indicates, namely, an anecdotal account of one man’s Catholic priesthood. While it is autobiographical in the sense that it is based largely on Father Lange’s life and experiences as a priest, the aim and purpose of the book belong more to the realm of Catholic faith and devotion generally, and, indeed, to that of Catholic apologetics, giving reasons for the faith, offering “a defense…for the hope that is in [us]” (1 Pet 3:13). Among other things, Father Lange turns out to be quite an effective apologist for the faith. At various times in the text, Father Lange remarks, in effect, that “It’s not about me!” Rather, it’s about faith and God’s grace, how important and indeed necessary they are, and how they literally make life worth living. Father Lange certainly shows that they have made his life worth living—and worth recounting too, for the benefit of others, especially for those he calls wayward Christians. If God could save him—and by save here is meant not only eternal salvation, but rescue from an aimless and empty life here and now—why could he not save you or me as well? That, in fact, is precisely what God wants to do for all of us; he wants to save us from ourselves—if only you and I will respond to his love, abundantly offered to everyone, and cooperate! This is an important part of the message that Father Lange never tires of repeating.Kenneth D. Whitehead
Hilaire Belloc - PB 130 Pages
Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc, 1870-1853, was born in France of a French Catholic father and an English protestant mother. His mother later converted under the influence of Cardinal Manning, a good friend and mentor of Hilaire. His only sister, Marie Lowndes, was a fairly well-known writer like her brother Hilaire. Belloc’s father died young, leaving his widow in dire financial straits with two young children to support. They moved to England, and they settled in Slindon, West Sussex, where Belloc lived for most of his life. In 1906, he married Elodi Hogan, from Napa California. Their brief. but ecstatically happy. marriage ended with her death in 1914, after she had borne him five children. He never remarried, and he wore mourning for the rest of his life. This beautiful and precisely chiseled, almost fairy-taleish narrative, subtitled A Tale of Affection in Youth and Age, must certainly have been a poignant reminder that he himself had, by the inscrutable providence of God, been granted that deep measure of affection in his youth that is so idealistically pictured in Belinda, but denied that affection in old age that is equally well-depicted. This brief novel of human love and affection idealized is a delightful and cheerful reminder that indeed, life can have its moments of beauty, if even only as a foretaste of the delights promised to those blessed with the grace of perseverance unto salvation.
The Three Pillars of Faith in the Real Presence: Ordination, Offertory, Consecration
Edward Snyder - PB-146 pages
Since the introduction of the Novus Ordo liturgy in the 1960s, Catholic belief in the Real Presence and the essential sacrificial nature of the Mass and of the priesthood has declined precipitously. In addition, the number of men entering the priesthood and the percentage of Catholics regularly attending Mass has also fallen off dramatically. When seeking answers to why these facts are so, the author of this treatise, Edward Snyder, has undertaken a substantive study of the words used in both the ancient and the new liturgy and arrived at some startling discoveries and conclusions.
Since belief in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and Christ’s true presence in the consecrated host are beliefs central and essential to the Catholic religion, it is important to understand why these beliefs are no longer held by so many. Certain core doctrines believed by the first Christians were supported by the linguistic evidence they left in the New Testament. What does this linguistic evidence consist of? Specifically, about the year 325 B.C. the Hebrew Old Testament was translated into Greek. This translation was done by seventy Hebrew scholars and it is known as the Septuagint. The Greek and Latin New Testament texts contain many semitisms—that is words that were used based on the Aramaic spoken and written by the Church when the original Christians were primarily Aramaic speaking—that can only be properly translated into English, or any other vernacular language, if the Hebrew roots are understood.
This philological study of the root of words used in the scriptures and the liturgy will be most useful as an aid to understanding why clarity of belief is disappearing so rapidly in the Church of our day.
Mario Peterson & Tom Concert — 96 Pages - PB
Searching for Fine Pearls is an easy-to-read summary of the monumental Catholic classic The Mystical City of God that was written by Venerable Mary of Agreda, a 17th century Franciscan abbess, who had mystical visions and revelations concerning many intimate details of the life of our Lord and his Blessed Mother not revealed in the Gospels. These revelations were described and published in four volumes, in Spanish, during her lifetime.For those readers who might be daunted by the thought of reading the full work of over 2,000 pages, this short summary may encourage them to make the effort. Many saints, popes, religious, and other holy men and women, as well as humble laymen from all walks of life have found great grace and consolation in the pages of The Mystical City of God.This work has received the approbation of seven popes and has been read and meditated upon by millions in the four centuries since its original publication. An English translation was produced in 1912 and has enjoyed a wide readership.Mary of Agreda’s incorrupt remains and the well documented facts of her evangelizing bilocations to the New World attest to her holy life. Fray Junipero Serra, the founder of so many of the famous California missions, and a brilliant scholar and theologian, was profoundly influenced by her inspirational writings. He always carried with him three books; his breviary, a copy of the bible, and The Mystical City of God.
Father Denis Fahey, C.S.Sp. PB - 144 pages
I repeatedly promised Saint Peter that if I ever got the chance, I would teach the truth about his Master in the way he and his successors, the Roman Pontiffs, wanted it done. That is what I have striven to do and am doing.” — Fr. Denis Fahey Denis Fahey was born in Golden, County Tipperary, Ireland, on the land and among kinsmen whom he dearly loved. The parish of Knockavilla where he was baptized is part of the Diocese of Cashel. He was, by the grace of God born into a devout Catholic family that was blessed with three sons. Thomas was the oldest. John died very young, and Denis was the youngest son of his parents, Thomas and Brigit (Cleary), who were deeply devoted to the Church. Denis was sent at the age of twelve to Rockwell College, where he was educated by the Holy Ghost Fathers among whom his vocation to the priesthood was nurtured and eventually came to fruition.
Fr. Fahey’s life work was the promotion of the Catholic social doctrine of Christ the King. He firmly believed that “the world must conform to Our Divine Lord, not He to it.” He always defended the Mystical Body of Christ without compromise. He called the social doctrine “Our Lord’s Program for Order.”
Fr. Denis Fahey was the great champion of the Kingship of Christ in the 20th century. This is the best introduction to his work, since it is the most concise and yet comprehensive summary of the great battle of our age. It is a clear outline of the eternal battle between the fallen angels with their worldly allies and Our Lord in his Mystical Body, the Catholic Church.There are two cities, with two armies, battling for the victory of God’s kingdom on earth. He of course already reigns without opposition in Heaven as it says in the Lord’s Prayer.
The Mystical Body of Christ and the Reorganization of Society is Father Fahey’s magnum opus, and his other books are all worthy of our attention, however, we at Loreto feel that this is the best short introduction to Father’s teachings.
Don Pietro Leone - PB 122 pages
Don Pietro Leone is the author of this most useful summary of the history of the destruction of the Roman rite and the substitution of a modern rite called the Novus ordo (new order) in its place. In his General Audience of November 9, 1969, Pope Paul VI had this to say (among many other things) about substitution of the new rite for the Roman rite of all times: “This change has something astonishing about it, something extraordinary. This is because the Mass is regarded as the traditional and untouchable expression of our religious worship and the authenticity of our faith.”No truer words were ever spoken by a pontiff, except perhaps by the high priest who once said: “You know nothing. Neither do you consider that it is expedient for you that one man should die for the sins of the people and that the whole nation perish not.”Some, upon contemplating these extraordinary changes, go so far as to think that the attempts of the Church’s enemies to eradicate once and for all “Popish superstition” from the world have made significant progress towards their goal when the Pope himself allowed the introduction of, in his own words, “a new rite” into the heart of the Church. Others seek to understand God’s will in these matters and consider that these changes and the resulting chaos in the life of the Church might be among those vague “chastisements” mentioned by Our Lady at Fatima. Still other observers of the Church in the latter half of the 20th Century and into the third millennium believe that the new mass is a great development of human progress and is the harbinger of a new “springtime” in the life of the Mystical Body, while yet others, many of the lay-faithful, struggle to maintain their faith and to live the life of faith somewhat passively in a spirit of docility in the face of the radical changes in liturgy and the life of the Church. Countless others have just dropped out of the daily life of the Church altogether.There is no question that the new rite has changed the Church. This little book seeks to serve as a scholarly and objective summation of the changes and their effects. The substance of the work is taken largely from the mouths of those who were responsible for promoting and producing the changes as well as from several lengthy and scholarly books published by those who oppose them.
Father Denis Fahey - PB - 128 pages
“I repeatedly promised Saint Peter that if I ever got the chance, I would teach the truth about his Master in the way he and his successors, the Roman Pontiffs, wanted it done. That is what I have striven to do and am doing.” —Rev. Denis Fahey
This book is the first published by Fr. Denis Fahey, the great apostle of the Kingship of Christ in the 20th century. In it he lays down the essential philosophical and theological principles that undergird and enliven the entire published corpus of his life’s work in defense of the Social Rights of God, in direct opposition to the nefarious Declaration of the Rights of Man that was the published declaration of war against Catholic civilization issued by the “enlightened” Freemasons who were responsible for the French Revolution. The war that Fr. Fahey so clearly delineated and chronicled is still engaged, even though few Catholics understand the nature and the extent of this war against human society and especially against Our Lord in His Mystical Body, the Catholic Church. The two ancient battle cries “We will not have this Man rule over us!” and “Non Serviam!” have been vividly revived in the 20th century by a host of enemies of Christ’s Kingship over human society. Until all human society—especially national governments—publicly recognize that Kingship, civilization will continue on its downward spiral. We hope that the re-publication of Fr. Fahey’s works will assist the Faithful in their attempts to restore all things in Christ for the future of our children and our children’s children and for the Greater Glory of God!
Fr. Hugh P. Donlon - PB - 150 pages
Auriesville - The Martyr’s ShrineThe breathtaking view of the Mohawk river valley from the front of the Shrine of the North American Martyrs at Auriesville New York gives the visitor cause to stop and remember that one day, long ago, our martyrs “ran the gauntlet” up that hill from the riverfront to the hilltop on which he now stands. Modern day Pilgrims who have for almost 20 years now made the yearly Pilgrimage for Restoration on foot, either from the Shrine of Kateri Tekawitha at Fonda New York only seven miles away, or the three-day Pilgrimage from the Lake of the Blessed Sacrament (Lake George) 72 miles away, can attest to the energy it takes to climb that hill after their long hike—and that is without running any gauntlet of blood-thirsty Mohawks!This shrine is one of the glories of the Catholic church in North America and all who can visit it are encouraged to do so, at least once in their lives. The editor can attest to the deep spiritual peace that is present on that hallowed ground. The famous Ravine where St. René Goupil’s relics were lost (and presumably are still part of the landscape there) is hauntingly beautiful and a place where many graces have been bestowed and received.This is the story of that Shrine and of the heroes who made it a place of heavenly peace and grace—The Land of Crosses!
A clarion call to solve current societal ills... in light of the Faith[.] Anthony Cooney
A compact and compelling look at the usefulness of the medieval guild and the broader political theory underlying it for a solution to the age-old and still perplexing problem of the struggle between capital and labor and the economic tension between cooperation and competition. A clarion call to solve current societal ills, such as unemployment, absentee corporate ownership, and employee disenfranchisement, in light of the medieval Faith.
By Fr. John J. Hugo - PB - 176 pages
Fr. John Hugo (1911–1985) was a priest of the Diocese of Pittsburg who spent much of his life giving retreats based upon those that he had participated in while still a young priest in the 1930s. Those retreats were given by Fr. Onesimus Lacouture S. J. and Fr. Hugo was one of over 6000 priests to whom the retreat was given over a course of several years. The Retreat, as it was affectionately called by its devoteés was an electrifying and life-changing experience for many of them. It was nothing more nor less than the Spiritual Excercises of Saint Ignatius. But these retreats given by Fr. Lacouture were, as the saying goes “the real deal.” They were given as St. Ignatius intended, for the proper length of time and according to the true Ignatian spirit. They got to the real “roots” of Christian living. They were, in short, radical.Fr. Hugo became a disciple of Fr. Lacouture in the sense that he experienced the fruits and saw the necessity of the retreat for Catholic Americans. He determined to continue that work as part of his priestly vocation. Fr. Hugo became the spiritual advisor of Dorothy Day (and the Catholic Worker Movement) who took the retreat more than twenty times during her life.This book, The Gospel of Peace, is one fruit of that work, and it was very controversial at the time of its publication in 1943. The Gospel of Jesus Christ is always controversial because it is “out of step” with the world.
This classic introduction to the basics of economic theory offers a constructive approach to economic education by defining terms and introducing key concepts without using insider jargon and complex theories. The fundamental questions about why the economy fluctuates and how small farmers, small business people, families, consumers, and innovators are affected by these fluctuations are considered. Serious alternatives to modern economic theories are explained, with attention to the realities that have been largely unchanged through the last century.
Hilaire Belloc is a former member of parliament in the British House of Commons. He is the author of more than 100 books, including Charles I, The Free Press, and The Restoration of Property. Edward A. McPhail is an assistant professor of economics at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Alberto Piedra is a professor emeritus of economics at Catholic University of America, where he was a chairperson of the economics department.
Br. Francis Maluf, M.I.C.M..
This is a book of seventy-two concise meditations each on a different subject. Whether it is an event, as the Day; or a virtue, as Gratitude; or a ravaging infidelity, as Islam; or a person, as Our Lady; our author zeroes in on the topic and, with an amazing depth of understanding, simplifies it in relation to time and eternity. The salient theme throughout Brother Maluf’s daily reflections is that every challenge one experiences in this wayfaring state has the capacity to elevate our human frailty to supernatural heights if we engage it with the magnanimous attitude of confident sons of God.
The principal author of this book, Father Aladel, was a member of the Congregation of the Mission founded by Saint Vincent de Paul. More importantly, he was the spiritual director and confessor of Saint Catherine Laboure. The Miraculous Medal was designed by the Mother of God and communicated by her to Sister Catherine with the instruction that this devotion be spread throughout the Church. The inscription: O Mary conceived without sin pray for us who have recourse to thee, anticipated the definition of the Immaculate Conception by nearly a quarter of a century. This book relates not only the heavenly visitations given to this humble saint, as well as her adventures and crosses endured for Our Lady’s cause, but also it gives the ensuing history of the medal itself with many accounts of miracles which accompanied its pious reception.
In this age of charismatic emotionalism and aberrant neo-Montanistic Pentecostalism, a definitive and scripturally based book on true devotion to the Holy Spirit is as welcome as it is provident. This production is actually a slightly abridged version of Archbishop Luis Martinez’ original work, El Espiritu Santo, which in English translation was re-titled, The Sanctifier. Written over a half-century ago, the Mexican prelate no doubt anticipated the danger that a Church, founded upon the Trinitarian revelation of Jesus Christ, would face if she neglected to adequately educate her members as to the sanctifying role of the Third Divine Person in the economy of salvation. Such motivating and informative chapters as "Your soul’s delightful Guest," "The Holy Spirit forms Jesus within you," "Let the Holy Spirit possess you," and "Possess the Holy Spirit" are so essential to a divine and Catholic Faith that our faith in the mystery of the Incarnation itself is incomplete without this perfecting grace and illumination. Moreover, the seven gifts of the Paraclete, perfecting our conformation in Christ, are not arbitrary — Martinez stresses — they are necessary for salvation. So, too, are the twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost necessary, which the author expounds upon in the final chapters. Consolator Optime, O very best Consoler, may this inspired treatise of your admirable Archbishop reach many thousands of thirsty souls!
Chesterton's visit to Ireland in early 1918 resulted in this unique, readable, and thought-provoking book on Ireland and the Irish situation of the early 20th-century from one of England's greatest essayists. In Irish Impressions, familiar Chestertonian themes — distribution of property, industrialism, the Faith and Christian society — are discussed in the context of Ireland's struggle for national and cultural independence from the Britain of the early 1900s. Not mincing words, Chesterton points out both the strengths and weakness of the English and Irish positions during that crucial period, always with wit and wisdom — and an appreciation of religious, cultural, and economic essentials, which is characteristic of Chesterton's work. Originally published: London, 1919.
IHS Press is extremely pleased to be able to offer with this newly edited, extensively footnoted edition, a new Preface by Dr. Dermot Quinn.
Dr. Quinn is an Associate Professor of History at Seton Hall University, and an intimate friend and colleague of Fr. Ian Boyd of Seton Hall's Chesterton Institute. Quinn received his doctorate from Oxford University, is author of Patronage and Piety: The Politics of English Roman Catholicis, 1850 — 1900 (Stanford University Press, 1993), and is a frequent contributor to The Chesterton Review.
The words, spoken or written, of a soul that genuinely loves God have a tone to them which always rings true. Couple this truth with literary genius, deep spiritual discernment and childlike simplicity and you are close to describing Father Leonard Feeney, the author of Fish on Friday. These fourteen Catholic essays, Father Feeney’s youthful best, mirror a heart that is as light and humorous as it is religiously profound. Loreto Publications is delighted and proud to put this American Catholic classic back in print. Too many generations have been deprived of Father Feeney’s winsome literary sagacity when his poems and essays were mysteriously removed from Catholic schools on account of his heroic defense of a defined doctrine of the faith. No one can possibly read "Fish on Friday," The Queen of Hearts," "Charlie Maloney," or any of the other eleven essays in this book without frequent bursts of wholesome laughter and (be forewarned) without a welling of those kind of tears that expand the soul. After reading this book one will clearly see that our Lord and 0ur Lady were preparing this priest and theologian all along with superabundant graces to become what he became — one of the greatest apostles of the twentieth century. In the February 17, 1994 issue of Catholic New York, John Cardinal O’ Connor began "An Informal Pastoral on Lent" with this paragraph:
"Long before he ran into a bit of trouble, from which it was obvious that he would recover, given his whimsical sense of humor, Fr. Leonard Feeney, S.J., wrote some of the most delightful things ever published in our land. Fish on Friday was one of the best. It first appeared 60 years ago, and never a Lent goes by without my renewing my friendship with it . . ."
Dollfuss: An Austrian Patriot was written by neo-Thomist professor Fr. Johannes Messner based upon his close association and collaboration with Engelbert Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria. Messner's account of Dollfuss's life provides a brief sketch of biographical details, but, more importantly, illustrates Dollfuss's social vision and provides an account of his attempt to structure Austrian social and economic life along the lines determined by Quadragesimo Anno. As a leading exponent of Catholic Social Doctrine as it was expressed in the Austrian tradition established by Karl von Vogelsang, Messner is uniquely qualified to highlight the reforms initiated by Dollfuss as they relate to the traditional social vision of the Church.
Dr. Zmirak is a student of traditional and Catholic political economy, and the author of Wilhelm Roepke: Swiss Localist; Global Economist. Dr. von Hildebrand is a frequent writer and lecturer on Catholic culture and related subjects. Her husband, the late Dr. Deitrich von Hildebrand, collaborated with Dollfuss and his associates on the paper of the Austrian state, The Christian Corporative State.
George O'Brien In the Department of Human Affairs concerned with the economic activities of man, the old universally accepted code of justice fell into disregard, if not into ridicule; and its place was taken, on the one hand, by the theory that the only safe guide for man to follow in these affairs is his own personal interest, and, on the other hand, and partly as a reaction against this repulsive theory, that the individual has no right of initiative at all, but that his whole being must be subordinated to the welfare of the community. Both these theories would have been equally disapproved by the old, despised ethical authority of the Middle Ages, under whose régime they could not have flourished or developed; but, at the time when they arose, that old authority was no longer universally accepted, and there was no power in Europe strong enough to withstand the march of these two dangerous doctrines. The path to both Capitalism and Socialism had been opened by the Reformation.
The Catholic Land Movement Papers
Here is a collection of essays by leaders of the Catholic Land Movement. Spearheaded by men such as Fr. Vincent McNabb, the movement was a practical embodiment of the salutary truth that economic life must be rooted in property ownership and agriculture. This book expresses that vision through the words of some of Englands wisest social commentators. If youre not able to flee to the fields, someday your children may want to.
Rev. G. E. Phillips
This history of the Holy House of Loreto is the most decisive work in English defending the authenticity of this most hallowed shrine in all Christendom. Our Lady’s Holy House at Nazareth was taken by angels to Dalmatia (Croatia) in 1291 to prevent its desecration by the infidels. Three years later it took flight again to rest in Loreto, Italy, where it remains. Rev. Phillips provides the facts, and excitement behind the story. Many cures, apparitions, and miraculous conversions, have happened within the limestone walls of the Santa Casa.